List_ Parts of Bahay Na Bato _ Filipiniana - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. kjchuxhnkxjhicjfsldf. Filipino nferosexmaufu.gq Uploaded by. Josh Cawaling · Filipino Architecture. Uploaded by. Zarah Candido · List_ Parts of Bahay Na Bato _ Filipiniana The "bahay na bato" (literally translated as "house made of stone") has been .. not only for. tte main framework but also for other parts of the house based on.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Japanese|
|Genre:||Fiction & Literature|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
Bahay na bato is a type of building originating during the Philippines' Spanish Colonial Period. Visayas; Batanes. 4 Other buildings; 5 Parts of Bahay na bato; 6 See also; 7 References .. nferosexmaufu.gq NLP00VMmcd/v2/nferosexmaufu.gq The Spanish Colonial Tradition. ^ Kim, Young Hoon (). Bahay na Bato (Geometric Style). Picture. Bahay na Bato (Geometric Style). Picture. Bahay na Bato (Floral Style). Picture. Bahay na Bato (Floral Style). Picture. Start studying Parts of Bahay na Bato. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
Roofing is either Chinese tiled roof or thatch nipa , sago palm , or cogon , of which many today are being replaced by galvanized or other modern roofing. It followed the bahay kubo's arrangements such as open ventilation and elevated apartments used as living space with the ground floor used for storerooms, cellars, and other business purposes.
Like bahay kubo, much of this ground level was reserved for storage; in business districts, some spaces were rented to shops. Horses for carriages were housed in stables called caballerizas.
The 19th century was the golden age of these houses, when wealthy Filipinos built fine houses all over the archipelago. The same architectural style was used for Philippines' Spanish-era convents, monasteries, schools, hotels, factories, and hospitals, and with some of the American-era Gabaldon school buildings, all with few adjustments.
Today, these houses are more commonly called ancestral houses , due to most ancestral houses in the Philippines being of bahay na bato architecture.
An example of bahay na bato Philippine architecture Etymology Though the Filipino term bahay na bato means "house of stone", these houses are not fully made up of stone; some are even dominated more by wooden materials, and some more modern ones use concrete materials. The name got applied to the architecture as generations pass by, because contrary to its predecessor bahay kubo, which are fully made of organic materials, it uses stone materials.
The first buildings during the early years of Spanish occupation were of wood and bamboo, materials with which the pre-Hispanic indigenous Filipinos had been working expertly since early times known as bahay kubo later named by the Americans as "nipa hut". Bahay kubo's roofs were of nipa palm or cogon grass. In its most basic form, the house consisted of four walls enclosing one or more rooms, with the whole structure raised above ground on stilts.
Its resemblance to a cube earned its description in Spanish, cubo. Clusters of these wooden houses clearly were predisposed to fire. For this purpose, the Chinese and the indigenous Filipinos were taught how to quarry and dress stone, how to prepare and use mortar, and how to mold bricks.
Thus began what has been called the first golden age of building in stone. This new community setup made construction using heavier, more permanent materials desirable. Some of these materials included bricks, mortar, tiles and stone. Glowing accounts of towering palaces and splendid mansions reached the peninsula. However, the ambitious plans of the Spaniards were dashed in when a terrible earthquake struck Manila. The twin dangers of fire and earthquake gave rise to another type of architecture.
Finding European construction styles impractical in local conditions, Spanish and Filipino builders quickly adapted the characteristics of the bahay kubo of the natives and applied it to Spanish Colonial architecture. These houses are now commonly called ancestral houses. Manila during the early s was filled with majestic bahay na bato architecture on its streets Under more than three centuries of Spanish initiative, buildings of wood, stone, and brick were constructed all over the archipelago, from the Batanes Islands in the north to Tawi-Tawi in the south , from Palawan in the west to Samar in the east.
An assumed dead load was applied to serve as a controlling factor.
Furthermore, it was also assumed that the truss systems are exposed to the same environmental conditions. Authored by Prof. The thorough documentation of the heritage house was discussed, as well as comparisons of its roof with that of Chinese prototypes. Although many aspects of the Jesuit House were pointed out, data on structural strength, were not included. It is for this reason that a further study on this roof type was done.
Rene B. Tony Abelgas. These did not say much about the roof structure, but proved to be a good source of historical information on the relevance of structure with a multi-inclined roof. Research Methodology As earlier discussed, the study was limited to the Multi-inclined Roof truss systems of just three structures.
Assumptions were also made for controlled testing. As for the timeline, Initial studies and documentation were done as early as August 17, , and it was completed in May of The Chinese Influence on Philippine Architecture; 2.
The Jesuit House and its Multi-inclined Roof; 4. The Sta. Ocular Inspection and Photo-Documentation Among the three case studies, the researcher was able to personally investigate only one: the Jesuit House in Cebu.
This software program allows Engineers to analyze and design virtually.
Originally developed by Research Engineers International, it was eventually bought by Bentley Systems. There were three truss systems that were analyzed in this project: 1 Sta. The material of the truss members was assumed to be Glue-Laminated wood GluLam. Pro, analyzed the complex configurations of the trusses that were studied. An overview on how this computer simulation program works is presented below. To simplify the discussion, a basic, simply-supported beam is used as an example.
In order to determine the line load to be applied on the model, the area load presented in the previous section was multiplied with the tributary width of the trusses as shown below. A tributary width of 1. This uniform load resulted to a bending moment on the beam.
The bending moment diagram for a simply-supported beam, our example, is shown below and the maximum bending moment is likewise shown.
The equations for the maximum stress and the moment of inertia for a rectangular beam section is presented below. The capacity of the beam is computed using a code, in this project, the AITC, which depends on the material properties of the section.
The resulting ratio is called the Utilization Ratio which will then be used as basis for the comparison of the different truss configurations. Results Analysis Results were analyzed through the following: 1. Comparative Analysis The Utilization Ratios of each of the cases was determined, and the structural performance of the three roof systems were compared.
Results Analysis A. Case Study 1: The Chinese Multi-inclined Roof There are basically three Chinese roof types, and these are the Straight- inclined Roof, which is the simplest and most economical kind, having a single slope or incline, and usually found on houses of commoners. The second type is the Multi-inclined Roof, which has two or more slopes or incline sections. These were used for palaces and houses of wealthy commoners; thus, it is associated with the upper class.
Ceramic figurines adorn the ridges of the roof, which is usually the type that palaces and temples use. These three Chinese roof types are of timber construction, covered with clay tiles.
The Chinese Buddhists used curved roofs to drive away evil spirits, which they believed moved in straight lines. Straight-inclined Roof Multi-inclined Roof Sweeping Roof The Chinese roof forms were status symbols; that is, more intricate and highly decorated roofs were associated with those who belong to the wealthy class. For the primary supports, or the beams, of Chinese roof systems, large structural timber was used, while load-bearing posts and lateral beams were of large trimmed logs.
The use of brackets was incorporated, as added support and as an ornamental feature. Considered as a great contribution to Architecture, the Chinese way of construction involved the use of columns and interlocking wooden frame structures that support the whole building.
Since roofs are very heavy structural members, a unique wooden framing system was developed by the Chinese master builders. Weight was not brought down onto the walls, but gravitational forces were distributed downward and out through the wooden frame network of pillars, beams, and purlins. Four-part brackets or "dougongs" were also used to support the extra weight of heavily ornamented eaves. One of the objectives of this study is to structurally analyze the Chinese Multi- inclined Roof and compare it with the Multi-inclined Roofs of Philippine Spanish-colonial structures.
It can then be concluded that it is structurally sound. The Utilization Ratios are consistent, with slight variations. Forces are balanced throughout the system; that is, the loads are distributed to many points at regular intervals.
It is within a historical district where other heritage structures are situated. Its history is much debated, and ongoing studies are being made to reach a conclusion. It is one of the structures that feature a multi-inclined roof, which can be found in the district. Nearby, another building with the same architectural element is the Casa Gorordo, which has been turned into a museum, as well.
Records show that it once featured a three-storey tower, indicating that its original owners were of the wealthy class. The multi-inclined roof system of the structure was thoroughly inspected, and translated into drawings, which served as the bases for structural analysis. The roof truss of Pavilion A was the focus of study. Pro Software, and applying the procedure explained in the methodology, the following Utilization Ratios were determined for the Multi-inclined Roof of the Jesuit House: Graphical Representation of the Utilization Ratios of the Multi-inclined Roof of the Jesuit House The table shows that the Utilization Ratios of the multi-inclined roof system of the Jesuit House are acceptable, with the Maximum Stress not exceeding the Maximum Allowable Stress.
This indicates that the truss system is structurally sound. Truss members were configured in such a way that the loads are distributed effectively. Of Filipino Baroque style, it has walls made of coral stones and included hardwood elements.
It features multi- inclined roofs covered with terra cotta tiles. For this study, the multi-inclined roof truss system of the nave area of the church was structurally analyzed.
Pro Software, and applying the procedure explained in the methodology, the following Utilization Ratios were determined for the Multi-inclined Roof of the Boljoon Church: 24 Graphical Representation of the Utilization Ratios of the Multi-inclined Roof of the Boljoon Church The Utilization Ratio table shows several failures, particularly at the bottom part of the truss system.
Based on the graphical representation, loads are not distributed evenly, with concentrations on some parts. However, there are some speculations on why the results were so.
These would be discussed in the comparative analysis. Comparative Analysis The first two cases, the Chinese multi-inclined roof system and that of the Jesuit House, yielded positive results. Their Utilization Ratios show that forces and loads are evenly distributed to the members of the roof trusses, indicating that the capacity of each member is sufficient.
Appropriate material sizes, too, could have contributed to the favorable outcome. As for the multi-inclined roof of the Boljoon Church, failures were detected. However, due to the fact that the multi-inclined roof of the Boljoon Church is intact to this day, it can be said that it could have been designed for the actual climatic and topographic conditions of Boljoon, and that it was not subjected to extreme conditions that the simulation assumed.
Another speculation is that the structural integrity of the roof could have been affected by the two restorations that were done. A third speculation would be inaccuracies in documentation.
Whatever the case may be, it would be ideal if the church is re-documented. Moreover, a thorough conditions analysis should be done to ensure structural soundness and safety. Conclusion The structural significance of the Multi-inclined Roof is primarily defined by its functionality, efficiency, and strength. A Chinese architectural innovation that is part of a universally accepted construction method, it continues to inspire modern technology to this day.
The use of pillars and a network of beams accommodated the balance of forces, resulting in a structure that is more spatially flexible, keeping walls load-free. The Chinese Multi-inclined Roof is a sturdy one. The equal distribution of loads throughout its system allowed it to be supported by columns, even in the absence of walls.
As poetically expressed during the 10th century Tang dynasty, "the walls may topple down, but the roof would not collapse. They might have wanted to share the benefits of having durable protection from the elements; or since they were a huge part of the construction workforce during the Spanish era in the Philippines, they applied only what they were knowledgeable on: Chinese construction methods. Perhaps, there are other reasons that led to the introduction of multi-inclined roofs in the Spanish-colonial Philippines.
The ethnic Chinese settlers were considered by the Spaniards as non-citizens; thus, they were alienated. They might have been an integral part of the Philippine community as skilled workers or merchants, but they were not acknowledged as legitimate members of the society.
As the Chinese settlers grew wealthy, they gradually gained their place in society. They built their homes in the economic hubs, incorporating a large part of their culture in the style of their houses: from spatial planning, to the multi-inclined roof.