The Library of Congress has cataloged the book as follows: Azar, Betty Schrampfer. Understanding and using English grammar / Betty Schrampfer Azar. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have Understanding and using English grammar / Betty Schrampfer Azar. - ~ 3rd ed p. cm. Betty Schrampfer Azar. Page 2. UNDERSTANDING. AND USING. ENGLISH. GRAMMAR. Third Edition with Answer Key. Longman. Betty Schrampfer Azar.
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Fundamentals of English grammar / Betty Schrampfer Azarrd ed. The new editions of the texts in the Azar Grammar Series include these changes. Azar, Betty Scrampfer, Basic English grammar I Betty Schrampfer Azar. -- 2nd ed. D. cm. 1ncludes indexes. ISBN ISBN (v. FUNDAMENTALS OF. ENGLISH. GRAMMAR. Third Edition. WORKBOOK. • nferosexmaufu.gq Betty Schrampfer Azar with Stacy Hagen.
Each season last three m onths and bring changes in th e w eather. It is singing. I w ant a sand wich. Mt s ng t khng c dng th tip din. I hear a bird right now. I hear a bird hin gi. I am hearing a bird hin gi. You know, spaceships from outer space with alien creatures aboard.
In my opinion, flying saucers exist imaginations. Com plete th e sentences by u sin g the w ords in parentheses. S om e of th e sentences a re questions. Supply th e sh o rt answ er to a q u es tion if necessary. W here are the children? In the living room. I wonder what it is. She bought it last month. Here's one: She sells seashells down by the sea shore.
Can you say this: Sharon wears Sue's shoes to zoos to look at cheap sheep? To discuss your classmates'immediate ac tivities, divide into two groups, I and II. All perform these ac tivities at the same time. Yoko is scratchingher chin. Spyros is leaning against the wall.
Be sure to use your classmates' names. Use th e following prepositional expres sions of place in sentences. Talk about things and people in the classroom.
Perform actions to dem onstrate the m eaning of the expressions if necessary. What are some things you usually do every morning? What are som e things you did yesterday OR: Take out a piece of paper. Write what you did your activities yesterday.
Write as fast as you can. The simple past is used to talk about activi ties or situations that began and ended in the past e. You're sitting on a soft, comfortable sofa. T he population of th e world is getting smaller. Correct the inaccurate state m ents by using negative then affirmative sentences. Some verbs are past and som e are present. You drank two cups of tea this morning. No, that's not true. I didn't drink two cups of tea this morning. I had coffee with my breakfast.
Thats not possible! I know that. You got up at 4: See the reference list of irregular verbs that fol lows in Chart Dng qu khdom tn cng l -ed i vi ng t c qui tc.
Hu ht cc ng t c qui tc, nhhg nhiu ng t thng dng c dng qu kh n bt qui tc. Xem bng tham kho ng t bt qui tc sau y Bng Some verbs are irregular. It is used in perfect tenses Chap ter 7 and the passive Chapter Phn t qu khcng tn cng l -ed di vi ng t c qui tc. N c dng cc th hon thnh. Chng 7 v dng b ng Chng It is used in progressive tenses e. N uc dng cc th tip din vd: Use each verb only one tune.
Mary walked to school today. His back is very painful today. The children had a good time at the park yesterday. She's very angry. I have a cold. My dog isn't very friendly. Luckily, my dog is very old and doesn't have sharp teeth, so she didn't hurt my neighbor.
It was okay, I guess, but I don't really like horror movies. P air u p w ith a classm ate. P ractice questions, sh o rt an swers, an d irregular verbs. Look at Chart if necessary to check the coect form of an irregular verb. Your book is open. Give full answers. Your book is closed. Did you eat breakfast this morning? Yes, I did. I ate breakfast at 7: PART I: P ractice using irregular verbs by answ ering th e questions. Where did you sit in class yesterday? I sat over there. Where did you grow up?
What did you download last week? What did you eat for lunch yesterday? How much did it cost? When did you meet. What cities did you fly to on your way to the name o f this city? Drop the -e, add -ing. Dng -ing: B -e, thm -ing. Dng -ed: Ch thm -d. If the verb ends in two consonants, just add -mg or -ed. Nu ng ttn cng l hai ph m, ch thm -ing hoc -ed. Change -ie to -y a n d ad d -ing.
Dng -ecL Ch thm -d.
Lie l ng t c qui tc khi n c ngha "ni di". Lie l ng t bt qui tc khi n c ngha "nm": W hen two actions are in progress at the same time, the past progressive can be used in both parts of the sentence. Trong g: Khi hai hnh ng ang din tin cng lc, c th dng th qu kh tip din c hai phn ca cu. C om plete th e sentences w ith th e w ords in parentheses.
Com plete th e following. U se th e w ords in p arentheses. My mother called me around five. My husband came home a little after that. When I. Parker be in the yard. He change. When khi, lc ,after sou kh,before tnc khi , v while trong kh gii thiu mnh thi gian.
DScuss 1 punctuation. Also think of two or.
Use the notes from the conversation to write a composition about the other student's ac tivities yesterday. Use time clauses. Last Friday was a holiday. It be 1 2 Day, so I didn't have to go to classes.
Around ten, my friend Larry come 4 over to my apartment. Now you have a job every summer.
H ave you always worked during summers? When I was m high school, I wore a uniform to school. When I was a child, I drank a lot o f mik. I never drank coffee. H ow about you? When I was a child, I watched cartoons on TV. I don't watch cartoons anymore. N ow I watch news programs.
Complete the sentences. Each sentence should have a form of used to. I was bom in October. I was bom in I was bom in the twentieth century. The weather is hot in the siunmer. All of th e expressions contain tim e expressions. Last year I was a junior in high school. Walker can't come to the phone right now. Be going to and will are used to express future time.
Cch dng shall vi I hoc we din t thi gian tng lai khng thng dng v trang trng. The differences are discussed in Chart Make a sentence with be going to about your future activities.
Answer the question. U se a ftiture tim e expression. U se too with affirmative sentences or eier with negative sentences. I didn't study last night, and I'm not going to study tonight either. I did my homework yesterday, and.
I wasn't at home last night, and. We didn't have a grammar quiz today, and. Our teacher is in class today, and. I didn't go bowling today, and. I brought my umbrella with me today, and. The sun rose before six today, and. We didn't have pizza for breakfast this morning, and.
I'll, you'll, she'll, he'll, it'll, we'll, Will is usually contracted with pronouns in both speech and they'll informal writing. Will thng c rt gn vi cc i t trong c li ni v vn vit thn mt. Will is usually contracted with nouns in speech, but usually not in writing.
Will thng c rt gn vi cc danh t trong li ni, nhng thng khng c rt gn trong vn vit. Complete th e sentences. Use probably. I went to the library last night, and.
Be going to and will are die same when they are used to make predictions about the fu ture. Be going to v will ging nhau khi chng c dng a ra cc d on v tung ai. Be going to but not wilt is used to express a preconceived plan.
The speaker is planning to build a bookcase. Be going to l nh ch khng phi will c dng din t mt k hoch c nh trc. Trong c: NgUi ni ang d nh ng mt t. Will but not be going to is used to volunteer or express willingness. The speaker is happy to help. Will sn ltt ch khng phi be going to c dng tnh nguyn hoc din t s sn lng. Trong d: Ngi ni vui lng gip. Excuse me, b u t.
A fter I eat dinner, I'm going to study in my room. Be going to and will are NOT used in a fu ture tim e clause. Th hin ti n dc dng trong mnh thi gian tng lai. Be going to v will KHNG c dng trong mnh thi gian tng lai. A s soon as the ram stops, I'm going to walk downtown.
The speaker is talking a b o u t tw o events: Both events are in th e future. However, th e speaker uses th e. Trorig a: Ngi ni ang ni v hai s vic: C hai s vic u tng lai. Tuy nhin, ngiii ni dng th hin ti n ch khng phi be going to hay wilt ni v vic i hc v. Before I g o to class tomorrow.
Com plete th e following sentences with your own words. I'm going to eat dinner before I. As soon as I get home tonight, I. I'm going to call my friend after I. My life will be easy after I. Before I go to bed tonight, I. When I'm in Florida next month, I. I'll call you as soon as I. I'm going to visit my aunt and uncle when.
Maybe it will rain tomorrow. Maybe it will be hot tomorrow. Maybe it will snow tomorrow. Maybe Adam will have enough time. Maybe I won't get a letter tomorrow. As soon as Tom get. After I. My neighbor drop. Complete th e sentences with the correct forms of the words parentheses. Helen will graduate next semester. Look at Erin!
I wonder if she is happy or sad. I'm beat! I can't wait to get home. I'm tired of this cold w eather. C om plete th e sentences b y using a form o f th e words in p are n theses. Mark is obsessed with video games. If he.
Sometimes the present progressive is used to express future time, a and b have the same meaning. The present progressive is used to express future time when the sentence con cerns a definite plan, a definite intention,.
Th hin ti tip din c dng din t thi gian tng lai khi cu ni v mt khoch r rng, mt dnh r rng, mt hot dng tng lai r rng. Verbs such as come, go, stay, arrive, leave are frequently used in the present progressive to express future time. Such verbs express defi nite plans. Cc ng t nh come h , g idi , stay , ar rive h , leave ra i thng c dng th hin ti tip din din t thi gian tng lai.
You shouldn't download that used car. It's in terrible condition. It costs too much. You don't have enough money. You'] have to get insurance, and you can't af ford the insurance. downloading that used car is a crazy idea. My mind is made up. Nobodynot you, not my mother, not my fa thercan stop me. I'm downloading that car, and that's it!
I don't want to talk about it anymore. Oh well, it's your money. Verbs expressing planned m eans of transpor tation in the future are also frequently used in the present progressive; for example, fly, walk, ride, drive, take a bus, a taxi, etc.
Cc ng t din t cc phung tin vn chuyn c hoch nh trong tung lai cng thng c dng th hin ti tip din; v d. Sometimes a speaker will use the present pro gressive w hen he or she wants to make a very strong statement about a future activity, as in k.
Ngha tng lai cho th hin ti tip din c ch ra hoc bng cc t thi gian tng lai trong cu hoc bng ng cnh. To San Francisco. How are you getting there? I have to be at the airport by seven tomorrow morning. Do you need a ride to the airport? No, thanks. Are you planning to go somewhere over vacation? Rick and Olga Walker. Im going to call the doctor. You have a fever, chills, and a stomach ache.
No, don't call a doctor. I'll be okay.
I'm worried. And that's it! The simple present can express future time w hen events are on a definite schedule or tim e table. Only a few verbs are used in the simple present to express future time. The m ost com m on are arrive, leave, start, begin, end, finish, open, close, be.
Th hin ti n c th din t thi gian tng lai khi cc s vic c thi biu r rng. M ake sentences th a t com m unicate th e sam e or a sim ilar m eaning. U se th e verbs in parentheses.
I think that I will graduate next June, hope. I think that I will be at the meeting on time tomorrow. I think I will finish my education, g et a good job, start a family, and live happily ever after. She is activity that will happen in the immediate future, usually within five minutes. Ann is going to about to leave for the airport. The movie about to c ng be about to do something sp lm vic g din t mt hot ng s xy ra trong tng lai gn begin.
Trong a: Ann sp ra i mt lc no trong vi pht ti. W hat are th e following people probably ab o u t to do? Jack is holding his camera to his eye. He has his finger on the button. He's about to take a picture. Sally has her hand on the door knob. Ben is putting on his coat and heading for the door. Nancy has dirty hands from working in the garden. She is holding a bar of soap. She is standing at the bathroom sink.
Eric is on the last question of the examination. Rita is holding a fly swatter and staring at a fly on the kitchen table. Identify each italicized word in th e sentences as a: The plural form of nouns that end in -0 is som e times -oes and sometimes -OS. Some nouns have irregular plural forms. The singular form of people can b e person, woman, man, child. Mt s danh t c dng s nhiu bt qui tc. Dng s' t ca people c th l person, woman, man, child.
Many English sentences have preposi tional phrases. The object of a preposition is a noun. Nhiu cu ting Anh c cm gii t. Cm gii. Sara saw some pictures on the wall. Sara looked at the pictures. Emily waited for her friend at a restaurant. The sun rises in the east. Sue lost her ring in the sand at the beach. The moon usually disappears from view during the day. Children throughout the world play with dolls. Astronauts walked on the moon in A woman in a blue suit sat beside me until the end of the meeting.
In a typical English sentence, "place" e. Astronauts walked in on the moon. Trong cu ting Anh tiu biu, "ni chn" vd: He wore a shirt white. Adjectives can come immediately before nouns, as in f.
Tnh t c th ng ngay trc danh t, nh trong f. Adjectives can also follow main verb be, as in g and h. Tnh t cng c th theo sau ng t chnh be, nh trong g v h. Also discuss sub jects, verbs, and objects.
The students wrote long compositions. Deserts are dry. The audience laughed at the funny joke. Sensible people w ear comfortable shoes. Crocodiles have big teeth. Dark places frighten small children. Steve Gleaned the shelves of the refrigerator with soapy water. The local police searched the stolen car for illegal drugs. Before the development of agriculture, primitive people gathered wild plants for food. Sometimes words that are usually used as nouns are used as adjectives.
When a noun is used as an adjective,. Whale are intelligent 3 animal like dog and chimpanzee. Even though they live in sea, ocean, and 4 river, whale are not fish. Fish lay egg and do not feed their offspring. They can grow to foot 30 meter in 8 length and can weigh ton , kilogram.
Blue whale are much 9 larger than elephant and larger than any of the now extinct dinosaur. Its main 11 blood vessel, the aorta, is large enough for a person to crawl through. Today many people are trying to 14 stop the hunting of whale. He is taking a test. They are taking a test. They have two children. Singu lar pronouns refer to singular nouns, plural p ro n o u n s to plural noun s.
Trong h: Choose the correct words in italics. Lee wrote a note on my test paper. Nick ate dinner with I, me. Nick ate dinner with Betsy and I, me. I, me had dinner with Nick last night. Betsy and I, me had dinner with Nick last night. Nick ate dinner with. The next day, he put his shirt in the wash. The ticket came out of the washing machine and dryer crumpled and nearly illegible. But when Alex took it, them to the game, the ticket taker accepted. I told they, them about the surprise birthday party for Lizzy.
They, them won't tel! She, H er is really going to be surprised!
We have two children, both girls. They share a bedroom. Through the years in public office, he made many political enemies. M ine" is a possessive p ro n o u n ; m y is a possessive adjective. He is a friend o f mine. It is used to identify another.
N c dng xc nhn mt ngi khc l mt ngi bn trong s nhiu The Smiths are friends o f ngi bn. The expression. Trong b: Thnh ng ny cng c th c dng dng s nhiu. Exam pk: You have a friend in Chicago. You wrote a letter to this person.
I wrote a letter to a friend of mine in Chicago. He wrote a letter to this person. Pedro wrote a letter to a friend of his in Miami.
You have a good friend in a city. They visited them. You have a good friend. You want to introduce me to this person.
You and I have a mutual friend. We ran into this person at name o f a place. You met this person. You have a friend. You invited this person to spend the weekend with your family.
They usually have dinner with these people. I am looking at myself in the mirror. Tell Spyros what he is doing. Spyros, you are looking at yourself in the mirror. What are Min Sok and Ivonne doing? Are you okay, Heidi? Did you hurt. David was really embaassed when he had to go to the job interview with a bandage on his face.
It is important for all of us to have confidence in our own abilities. We need t believe in 5. Sara is self-employed. She doesn't have a boss. There's plenty of food on the table. It wasn't your fault. You did everything you could to avoid it. I couldn't believe my good luck! Jane and I ran into som eone sh e knew. I'd never m et this person before. I waited for Jane. Paul is go ing to eat one of them. Sara is going to eat the other apple. The other means "the last one in a specific group, the only one that re m ains from a given num ber of similar items.
Then he ate another apple. Then he ate another on. Then he ate another. Another and the other can be used as an adjective in front of a noun e. Another v the other c th c dng lm tnh t truc danh t vd:. Sara ate the other apple, g Paul ate one apple. Sara ate the other one. Sara ate the other. Another and the other can also be used alone as a pronoun, as in e and h. Another v the other cng c th c dng mt mnh lm i t, nh.
Alex's bicycle was run over by a truck and destroyed. He needs to get one. The Smiths have two bicycles. One belongs to Mr. Other s without the m eans several more out of a group of similar items, several in addi tion to the one s I've already talked about. There are many apples in Paul's kitchen. Paul is holding one apple. The adjective other without an -s can be used with a plural noun e.
Others with an -s is a plural p r o n o u n ; it is not used with a noun. Tnh t other khng c - c th c dng vi danh t s nhiu vd: Others vi -s l! There are four apples on the table. Paul is going to take one of them. The other without an -s can be used as an ad jective in front of a noun or the word ones, as in d and e.
The other khng c -s c th c dng lm tnh t trc danh t hoc t ones, nh trong d. The others with an -s is a plural p ro n o u n ; it is not used with a noun.
The otiers vi -s l i t s nhiu; n khng c dng vi danh t. Trong f: Complete the sentences with correct forms of other, another, other, oiers, the other, the oiers. Jake has only two suits, a blue one and a gray one.
His wife wants him to download. Jake has two suits. Some suits are blue. Some suits have two buttons. Our physical education class was divided into two groups. Half of the students stayed inside and played basketball. You dont have to be a dishwasher all your life. An automobile consists of many parts. Some people keep dogs as p e ts. Can you name. When I was a kid, I had two pets. One was a black dog. When I walked into the classroom on the first day, the room was empty.
I sat down at a desk and wondered if I was in the right room. The first word of a sen a W e saw a movie last tence night. It was very good. Do you know Professor Prof. I saw a doctor. I saw Doctor Wilson. Ti gp Bc s Wilson. Bob arrived last Monday. It snowed on Thanks giving Day. The nam es of places: Tn cc ni: She was bom in Califor nia.
They are from Mexico. Tibet is in Asia. They crossed the Atlan tic Ocean. Chicago is on Lake Michigan. The Nile River flows north. The Sahara D esert is in Africa. We visited the Rocky Mountains. She lives in a city. Co y sng mt thnh ph. She lives in New York City. C y sng Thnh p h New York. They crossed a river. H vt qua mt con sng.
They crossed the Yellow River. H vt qua Sng Yel low. Venezuela is a spanish-speaking country. Canada is in north america. Add capital letters where necessary. We don't have class on Saturday. I live on a busy street. I live at olive street. We went to canada last summer.
We went to montreal in july. I like Vietnamese food. The religion of saudi arabia is islam. She works for the xerox corporation. It is a very large corporation. Pedro is from latin america. My uncle lives in St. I'm going to visit uncle bill next spring. On valentine's day February 14 , sweethearts give each other presents. Japan east of China. Japan is in the Far East. Khi north, south, east, v west cp n phng hng trn la bn, chng khng c if'. Japan is east of China. Khi chng. They are helping verbs that ex press a wide range of meanings ability, permission, possibility, necessity, etc.
Most of the modals have more than one meaning. Chng l cc tr ng t din t rt nhiu ngha kh nng, scho php, vic c th xy r, s cn thit, v. Hu ht. Tt c cc ng t khuyt row. To khng theo sau chng: I can speak Engtish. I can speak Englh. I can to speak Englh. I can to speak English. The m ain verb never has a final -s. Olga can speak English. Olga can speak Engtish. Olga can speaks Engh. Olga can speaks Englh. Can expresses ability in the pres ent or future. Can c th din t kh nng hin ti hoc tng lai.
The negative form of can may be written: Dng ph nh ca can c th c vit: The past form of can is could.
Dng qu kh ca can l could. The negative of could: Ph nh ca could: Bob can play the piano. Bob can to play the piano. Bob can plays the piano. U se could. What could you do when you were a child that you can't do now? What could you do when you were living in your own country or hometown that you can't do now? What did you want to do yesterday or last week but couldn't do?
Why couldn't you do it? Open-ended tasks for both speaking and writing. Two Appendices, one with phrasal verbs, one with preposition combinations.
Workbook devoted solely to self-study exercises.
Student Book available with or without Answer Key. Song Lessons for Fundamentals of English Grammar Basic English grammar. Betty Azar Fundamentals of English Grammar. Betty Azar. Preface to the Third Edition Expressing permission: