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    After a short introduction concerning the Middle Ages and cinema, I will analyse the new way in which Martin represents and perceives medieval times. The result is a rejection of the neo-medieval romantic idealization of the Midd- le Ages that characterized most twentieth-century productions. It will operate a transmedia analysis, since, even if there are differences be- tween the two products, the TV show and the novels have deeply and reciprocally influenced each other. Martin has actively contributed, at least until season five, to the production of GoT, offering his opinions about casting choices, scenography, locations and costumes1. He also reviewed the scripts of each episode and each of the first four seasons contains an episode written by Martin himself2. Furthermore, Martin has so far published only five out of the seven books that will compose the ASoIaF saga, while GoT has reached season seven and it is now following its own plot, even if based on what Martin told Benioff and Weiss about how the saga should proceed. Before getting to the heart of this paper, I will make some con- siderations about studies that have researched the relation between Middle Ages and cinema in the past few decades. They represent some illustrious precedents for this article and have laid the basis for a new way to study the representation of the medieval on-screen in this case, on the small screen. Some of the studies on medievalism, especially the Italian ones5, were often tainted by a problematic methodological ap- proach. In my view, a proper methodological approach consists of reading the different representations of the medieval through the lens of medi- evalism.

    Exploring George R. James Lowder Dallas: BenBella, , Marco Paperini Debatte: Livorno, , The latter, for example, successfully analysed the relation between ASoIaF, GoT, their sources medieval and, most of all, non-medieval , the post-medieval representation of the Middle Ages and its perception among the public.

    Martin has given several interviews that can help us understand his thought and, in particular, his percep- tion and representation of the Middle Ages. I watch it for historic reasons 51 Wall The Hundred Years War was another huge influence, the Crusades and the Albigensian Crusade, and a lot of details from Scottish history, which was particularly bloody.

    Like, taking something that happened to Henry the Eighth and having it happen to my characters in the same way, just change the names? You take a bit of this, you take a bit of that. You combine them, you re- think them. Essays on George R. He was born in and the first edition of The Lord of the Rings was published in Roughly in the same period, Disney managed to conjure up its own me- dieval imagery through films such as The Sword in the Stone See also G. I did read fantasy as well.

    As I read that, I sort of had a problem with a lot of the fantasy I was reading, because it seemed to me that the middle ages, or some version of the quasi middle ages, was the preferred setting of a vast majority of the fantasy novels that I was reading by Tolkien imitators and other fantasists, yet they were getting it all wrong. Martin also respectfully criticized the Oxford professor for having idealized the person of the medieval king Martin: The Rolling Stone Interview.

    In fantasy literature we can see a strong idealisation of the past. We are aware that the Italian film tradition embodied by Moni- celli is very different from fantasy literature and from the American TV series industry. However, in the case of Monicelli, we can see the same effort to dispel the myth of the golden Middle Ages, idealized by the romantic literary tradition. The presence of elevated levels of violence, sexism and alleged misog- yny both in AsoIaF and in GoT have often aroused indignation among parts of the audience, who have occasionally perceived some scenes as superfluous.

    Furthermore, in some cases, Martin has been accused of be- ing a male chauvinist because of the abundance of sexual violence in his works.

    Martin on Strombo: Full Extended Interview. I watch it for historic reasons 55 Ages This obsession has been absorbed by Benioff and Weiss, the cre- ators of the show. Such engagement with realism is not new in the context of histori- cal TV series or films. Helen Young Amherst: Cambria Press, , HBO, See Carroll, Medievalism, We can observe in GoT the presence of most medieval tropes imagined and created by western artists, intellectuals and historians.

    See Larrington, Winter is Coming 28, n. I watch it for historic reasons 57 author means to establish a permanent and stable contact with our times. Above all, this process is clear in San- sa Stark, who can be considered a symbol of the average reader. Like the average fantasy consumer, she was raised in the myth of knight- hood, reading novels that we can compare to our chivalric romance. In part, this approach may be a consequence of the plethora of declarations by Martin, Benioff and Weiss concerning historical ac- curacy, which have fostered, especially in the fandom, what has been defined as a positivist approach to a medievalist production.

    It is quite ironic that, in recent decades, both historians and amateurs have most- ly evoked historical accuracy to criticize historical films or TV shows, yet in this case, due to the clever strategy of the authors, the fandom uses the same positivist approach to give GoT the allure of a product based on serious and meticulous historical research, even if we are speaking of a fantasy saga.

    In fact, it is common to find on the internet analyses that, for example, compare the tragic death of Robb Stark during his wedding feast72 to some vague similar events that took place in Denmark in or in Scotland in , despite the fact that none of these were wedding feasts and despite the total lack of declarations by Martin on the topic The audience, observing the representation of these stereo- types, perceive them as plausible, recognizing them because they are familiar concepts, and this contributes to the creation of the historical allure of the production.

    In Knight Errant , the painter Kokoscha pictured the end of the myth of chivalry at the beginning of the Great War. I watch it for historic reasons 63 archetypical ideal What he seems to want to say to his readers is that the knights as they knew them actually never existed.

    Deconstructing medieval tropes such as knight- hood can be useful in historical research to offer a more complex and multifaceted view on a medieval social phenomenon, but its main purpose should not be to debunk medieval society per se. It turns out that Jon Snow is just as enamored with the nostalgic ideal of chivalry as Sansa is. The postmodern Middle ages In conclusion, we can now try to outline the result of George R. The absence of moral absolute values, the lack of heroes and antagonists, the lack of a single point of view in the narration, the desire of breaking the rules of fantasy liter- ature94 — all these elements are sufficient to define ASoIaF and GoT as postmodern, both because of their contents and their style Martin and the myths of history.

    Martin does not escape to the past by idealizing it, as Tolkien did to some degree, as a reaction to the chaos generated by two world wars In fact, both Tolkien and Martin had a strong relation, not only with the medieval past, but also with their present. As Mayer pointed out: Martin draws extensively from both medieval and post-medieval texts and tropes, as does Tolkien, and in- vites the same comparison to contemporary culture as does Tolkien.

    This is quite the opposite of what Roberto Vacca did in , when he projected similar fears into the future. Along with a typical postmodern deconstruction of the idea of the Middle Ages, Martin has, at the same time, created and crystallized his own view of the medieval era that, mostly due to the TV show, has now become one of the most influent imageries of the Middle Ages in West- ern culture.

    This is one of the main reasons why his works, as well as a great part of medievalist productions, deserve to be analysed through the notion of medievalism. Romanticism in A Song of Ice and Fire. Dallas: BenBella, Argentieri, Mino. Cinema: storia e miti. Napoli: Tullio Pironti Editore, Ashton, Gail, ed.

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    guerra dos tronos pdf livro 4

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